Thursday, January 28, 2016

1949 to 1997 - School before and after ADA help

How I lived as a blind baby, child and my school years

This is a combination of stories of how I managed to live being legally blind as a baby, child and my school years before and after help via ADA Compliance.  

Before my first pair of glasses
1949  - 1952
Before I got my first pair of glasses I kept pretty much to a high chair, the floor, the sofa or the bed - unless I was being held. I actually tried to eat some cigarette butts that I thought was candy in a pretty ashtray.  I thought it was the candy dish my Mom sat out for guests. Grandma came to visit us and she usually brought candy with her. When Mom was not looking I tried to eat some of the "candy".
Oh dear!

It is a difficult job raising a premature baby and a blind toddler without suggestions!

I was born at 28 weeks or 7 months. I weighed 3 pounds 15 ounces. I lost the 15 ounces right away. In 1949 they placed babies in an incubator with oxygen. Not much they could do for the babies. It was not until ten years later they figured out that the oxygen mix retarded the growth of the vessels and veins in the eyes. There fore when taken out of that environment the vessels in the eyes blew a gasket literally.  That is how the damaged occurred in my eyes at birth.  There are about 5 stages of damage. My left eye is about a 4 where my right eye is about a 2.  The famous Steve Wonder suffers from the same malady eye disease as me. He is totally blind in both eyes.

This is a photo of me when I was about a
year old and my brother who is two years older. There was just the two of us kids in the family.

My first pair of glasses - age 3 - 1953

I do not really remember getting glasses. I do remember Mom had an eye chart in the house that I had to learn what the pictures on the chart. There was a ball, a star, a boat and things like that on the chart and I had to know the name of the object. So when I knew all the names of each object and could say them back to Mom, I was taken to the eye surgeon’s office to be tested. The night before I was tested Mom put drops in my eye.
The next day the nurses put more drops in my eye and I had to wait until my eyes were dilated so the eye surgeon could look at my retinas to see how much vision I had.

Toddler eye chart from the 1950's and modern chart

It was determined that I could be helped with lenses for my right eye only. My left eye was too damaged and would not be helped at all by any lenses. My eyes were crossed and I could not control my left eye.

So they put patches on my right eye and made me use the muscles in my left eye to strengthen them. When they felt my muscles were well controlled, I got my first pair of glasses. I remember having to do this a few different times between the ages of 3 and 7.

My first pair of glasses bothered me so bad I buried them in the back yard. I broke my glasses a lot, too because I would take them off and then someone would step on them. My parents could not afford to keep buying me glasses and I went without a few times or had to wear the patched up broken ones.

Photo of me and my First pair of glasses age 3

My glasses age 3 through age 8
I had no idea I was “legally blind.” My parents never used that term with me. They always said I had a “bad eye.” No one ever said I was part blind or used the word blind in any way. I was never trained to accommodate for my vision loss. I managed to get through grammar school as the print was large enough that I could get by with the text books and the homework. I started to have problems in about the third grade as the print got smaller.

My glasses were always plastic lenses the “cat’s eye” style of the 50′s and 60′s. They all had real glass lenses that were very thick. I do not know what prescription started out with but I am sure it was at least a minus 6.00 lens in the right eye. The correction was for distance and astigmatism. The left lens was made the same number – just so there was a lens in the glasses. It did nothing for my vision in the left eye. They called that lens a blank or  “balance.”

Me age 10
My right eye stays closed about half mast, as I call it. The iris stays open as well and the light hurts my right eye. I also have Amblyopia. When I go outside or some one uses a flash camera indoors for photography or there is a lot of bright light indoors it really bothers me and gives me a headache. You can see that I am half closing the eye in the photo here with my cousins when I was 10.

Ages 8 through 18

So by the time I was in Junior High School I could not read the text books very well and could not read the paperbacks at all. I would try to read some and then I got massive headaches. I did not know how to study very well. I would listen in class and that is how I learned from listening. I had simple math errors that stayed with me until I was 25! No wonder I could not balance my checkbook – I rarely used one anyway. I mostly dealt with cash. I do not know how I got by all those years with out help. I never even used a magnifying glass until I was 32!

I managed to get by and faked my way through to graduate from High School with a 2.5 GPA. Needless to say my test results were no measure of my intelligence. I was not allowed to take certain electives in High School because I could not do the standardized tests that are mandatory through school districts. I would draw patterns with the order of my answers in the little circles of the multiple choice questions on the tests. The print was too small for me to read. No one ever thought to ask if I had a vision problem. They assumed because I had glasses every thing was “fine.”

My life with contact lenses
One lens

me with contact lens age 17

My first contact ‘lens’
I was so excited when I got my first contact lens. I was 17 1/2 years old. I only needed one as I only had correctable vision in my right eye.  I did well with other areas but not with reading. I did learn to sew and cook. I really liked those two subjects. I was no gourmet or fabulous couture designer, but I made good food and nice clothes. Mom had to sew my zippers though as that was too intricate to do accurately. Did I mention how many times I sewed my fingers and or got the machine needle in my thumb??? I felt like a pincushion.

Wire rims

After I used the first contact lens for 2 years, I went back to glasses and got some of those wire rim glasses. I was continuously getting eye infections despite meticulous cleaning of the lens. Then a few years later I tried a soft contact lens and that was OK for a few years. Then back to glasses. The BIG ones! I really hated those glasses. It was difficult to find a frame you like when the vendors only had 90% of what was the fashion at the time, which were those ugly huge frames. So I had 3 pairs of those ugly BIG glasses. Then came the 80′s and I got some Aviator glasses that had the new “photo gray” sunglasses that are what they call ‘Transitions’ today.

I had several prescription sunglasses. One set were the Aviator style was something like a minus 5 with the correction for astigmatism. I used one disposable contact lens with the glasses. I think that was about a minus 3. Lastly I used a minus 9 with astigmatism correction. That was the end of the contact lens and BIG glasses adventure.

I have not used a contact lens since 1992.
I now use wire rim glasses and have used plastic frames as well. The plastic frames break easy at the temples where the arms connect. My distance glasses today are minus 12.75 with the correction for the astigmatism. My vision has gotten worse and I have now developed cataracts and Glaucoma. My eyes are too sensitive to have an operation.

Photo of me and my husband in 1969  We both wore John Lennon style glasses.

Bifocals Yikes!
Women's bifocals

One time they talked me into bifocals because the difference between my distance needs and my reading needs were getting larger. With these bifocals I fell down too many times.
That was the end of my adventure with bifocals. I got back to a regular pair of glasses and have had the same the rest of my life to date.

Me and my youngest daughter and her father 1987 - those huge ugly glasses 

How I got through from age 18 to 32 with out any adaptive equipment

How I tried to go to 4 different colleges with out any help for a person who was legally blind. 

Facts about college with out help for the blind before 1990

Before College

I did not know I was legally blind until I was age 13.
They eye Doctor told my parents I was low vision because I had high myopia in my one eye as a child. They knew I did not have much of any vision in the other eye.
I was placed in standard public schools. For some reason that was what was chosen for me at the time in the 50's.

I got smacked with a ruler on the back of my neck - metal side for having 'fallen asleep in class." I was *NOT* asleep. I could not read the book and my face was literally in the book so I could read it. The school was very apologetic after they heard from my parents for corporal punishment with out reason.

One time one substitute teacher 'bolded' the lines for me on the paper in 2nd grade. No other help from any of the other teachers in any schools until I was in college when I was 42. I was marked as lazy etc. What I had was a physical disability for lack of proper help.

As I progressed in grade levels the book print size got smaller. I was legally blind by the time I was 13, that is I could not read paperbacks or any print that was less than 16 point font.
I got headaches and so I did not read the books. I tried to take the tests and began to fail in my grades.
I passed classes where I could memorize things and remember them for the tests.
Some how I managed to get by and graduate High School with a 2.5 GPA.

With the 10 basic products as my *ONLY* help to get me through college before 1980, I wonder what the younger kids think about how they can do their homework with out the help of a computer! I did not use a slide rule for Math, nor did I use a calculator which was available later. After 1980 I had my first electronic calculator.

                                 Manual drawing compass
1. 3 ring blue denim binder
2. lined binder paper/typewriter blank paper
3. number 2 pencils
4. the first ball point pens
5. wood ruler with metal edge
6. manual typewriter
7. "Pee Chee" folder [paper folder]
8. "metal compass" that holds a pencil to make a circle
9. rubber eraser/ round eraser with brush for typewriter
10. paper dictionary

           Before White Out Liquid paper there was this
           Round eraser with brush for typewriter

                         Vintage 10 cent Pee-Chee folder

I attempted to attend classes at 4 colleges between the ages of 18 through 46. I had absolutely no help at all. I passed half of my classes. Details in the modules below.

1990 was a landmark year that went by unnoticed by me.
That is the year the American with Disabilities Act was passed by President George H W Bush.

I was attending a junior college in 1992. My counselor did not know I was legally blind. I did not know that I was either.

I knew all to well how bad it was for me to see things. My last week of driving I hit a parked car as I was turning the corner. Fortunately, no damage to either car, I just grazed it. I had quit driving. I got rides after that or had people drive my car.

Tuning point...

Colleges I attended 1968 - 1993
1. Rick's College AKA BYU Idaho,
2. College of Marin,
3. Empire College
4. SRJC  -  Santa Rosa Junior College

College One: Rick’s College AKA BYU Idaho
Fall Semester August 20, 1968
Classes: Shakespeare, English 101, Psychology 101, Early Childhood Education and Genealogy

none – not even a magnifying glass

What happened:
The print was way too small and could not read the Shakespeare book at all. I had already read a dozen of the books and knew a good percentage of the contents. I did not pass the tests.
I barely could read any of the other text books, I was always too tired from trying to read
I barely passed the semester with a 1.563
Quit and went back home from Idaho to California. I had 5 roommates in a 3 bedroom apartment.

Passed Genealogy, Psych 101, English 101, and Early Childhood education. Failed Shakespeare.

Left December 13, 1968


College two: College of Marin, Kentfield campus, Marin County, California
Spring 1969 
I signed up for 3 classes: English Literature, A cooking and a Sewing class.

What happened:
Before ADA
no help – not even a magnifying glass

I am not sure what happened but I quit after a month. I remember something about the students protesting and disrupting the English class. The English class was at night time and I was having trouble driving in the dark. The other classes were in the day time. I just could not concentrate.  I think my parents were like go to college or get a job. Since I was failing at both working jobs and college, I was very unhappy.  I got married that December. 


College three: Empire College
Santa Rosa, California
November 1981 to November 1982
Goal: Medical Office – back office, then changed to Medical office Assistant

What happened:
The print too small and I started to have more vision loss which resulted in my detached retina and operation. No computers on campus at the time in my classes. This was a private college and they had classes that were 4 weeks each. 

Completed: English 101, Medical Terminology and transcription,
Was not able to complete: Typing and filing, Math, and Back office Procedures. 

Left for the operation, tried to resume and failed as my vision was cloudy with “floaters” that they could not remove.

ADA not available in 1981-1982
no help, not even a magnifying glass.
Some help with tutoring, but no enlargement equipment of any type or text.

College Four:
Santa Rosa Junior College, California 1980 -1992
Goal: fun classes and then Office assistant – A/P

Classes: Women’s History, Poetry writing class – passed both classes before 1990

WordPerfect [Before Windows 3.1 GUI version] in 1989 and again in 1992, typing and Accounting in Fall 1981 and 1993. All classes taken over a long period of time and one or two classes at the most at a time.

What happened:
Passed: WordPerfect in 1989. For WP in 1992 got deathly ill on final day and failed to attend the final class. I do not recall asking if I could take a make up final. 
Accounting – failed after 2 classes, I could not read the book.
Passed Data Entry 1993.

ADA I was aware it was available in 1990
none – not even a magnifying glass

Bottom line
I tried so hard to learn and go to college. I was like a sponge I wanted to learn, but my plans were terribly frustrated because I could not see to read. I have no idea why no one noticed that I was putting the books up to my face to see to read or anything else while I was involved with education from the time I was 5 until I was 45.

I cried, laughed, prayed, yelled and screamed at myself for stupid reasons. I read until I could not see anything and had to sleep. I was very depressed and did not know why. It never occurred to me to talk to anyone about my vision loss. I was raised to think of myself as just a kid who had to wear glasses like some – very few at the time – other students in the 50′s. In the 60′s I could hardly study because it hurt my eyes and I got headaches.

At college I was so exhausted that first semester, I had to quit at the end of the semester. I went back home to my parents house and sleep for weeks. I got a job at the Phone company in San Francisco in the mail room. I was so tired that on July 4, 1969 I could barely see the screen to see the moon landing. I am so glad I was able to see it again many times after that many years later.

I had other jobs as outlined below. Again, I had no help with my jobs.

In between colleges - Jobs 1970 - 1998
I had jobs such as Sales associate – Cashier, Motel and cleaning private homes, and Child care.
In between colleges and marriage I had some jobs. Once I got to know where the keys were on the cash register I did not have to worry about keying in. The price tags were another matter, no scanners in those days!

As of 1990 when the ADA passed I did not even know about it. I was not good enough for an office job with the few classes I had taken and the computer experience I had since 1989. So I gave up and did child care.

How I got help at college as a legally blind student

1990 was a land mark year that went unnoticed by me. That is the year the American with Disabilities Act was passed by President Bush.

Turning point:
I heard about a job skills center and signed up for the program that would assist people to get a job.
The program teacher realized that I was legally blind and asked me how blind I was. I told them. They told me how I could get help to go to college and living expenses for me and my child.
They advised me to inquire with the California State
Department of Rehabilitation to be trained by them and go to college for the computer job I wanted!

Here is what I looked like back in 1997

I enrolled at the Blind school in Utah for 6 months. In this photo I am using the four section white cane with the red section at the bottom. The top of the cane has a golf grip with a loop to hang on your hand when folded up into a smaller 13.5 inch section. It has an elastic cord to hold the 3 aluminum and graphite sections and the top together. I use this cane for travel when I was alone. I do not go out alone any more so I use the short white cane now with the hook top like a standard cane. It is for support as the long cane is not for support.

U.S. Department of Justice Americans with Disabilities Act

In 1990, America took a bold step forward when President George H. W. Bush signed into legislature the Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA].

With the act the college as well as other public places will pay for me to have people to take notes for me, make documents available in either large print or braille. They will help me with an assistive listening devices. They also will provide a video magnifier to help me see my text books.

The ADA helps to open barriers to employment and learning. They make accessible options for anyone with a disability in these areas: transportation, public accommodations, public services, telecommunications, among other areas.

Geoff Perel, my advocate:
So called into the Department of Rehab for my county in Santa Rosa, California. I got an appointment with Geoff and he interviewed me. I was told I had to go to an eye physician in San Francisco who was employed by the state of California. Dr August Colenbrander, MD was the eye doctor who worked at the Department of Ophthalmology at California Pacific Medical Center. He and his assistant preformed tests on me and my eyes to assess my vision. They then wrote up a letter to Geoff of their findings.

After the eye exam I got word a few weeks later from Geoff. It was determined that I am indeed legally blind. I was told I would be awarded disability income from the state and they would also pay for my education. Geoff then set up an individualized educational [IEP] and personal care plan for me.

This was awesome!

I could go to college and have an income to help me and my youngest daughter. So I got all signed up. I got a large back pay check from the time I signed up, not from the time I was really legally blind, which was since I was 13!

I was thinking about all those years working at motels and kitchens scrubbing the skin off my hands and elbows and getting degenerative disk disease from all the hard labor I had done not to mention lifting heavy children and all the chemicals I was exposed to and noise at the factory job. Argh!

I am just glad I survived it all.

I cannot believe I did not know I was eligible for disability and help! I wonder why my parents did not know either.

Gifts of equipment for my home:
A mobility specialist came out and brought items for my kitchen, bathroom and bedroom. 
She used a marker and made bump marks on my appliances and other places to help me know by feeling the bump dots. That made it easier to find things like numbers on the stove and switches.

I was in an apartment so I could not use the bump marker on the apartment laundry room.
My 20 year old daughter helped me by coming to clean my apartment especially when I was ill. She was paid by In Home Support Services [IHSS]. Later and since then I have had IHSS help me. My youngest daughter  was my caregiver from 2011 to 2015. Currently my oldest daughter is my caregiver and is paid by the state for 30 hours a month. We rent a 4 bedroom 3 bathroom house together with her husband and two daughters. 

Child care:
The state also provided child care before and after school for my youngest daughter who was 7 years old while I attended classes and study at the college library with my tutors.

I had to quit driving in 1994 as I could not longer see signs on the road or hi-way, could not back up and I hit a parked car – just grazed it. I got rides to college as was too afraid to take the bus.
The Mobility specialist trained me to take the bus, and the Para-transit bus. I also had mobility training to walk around campus and neighborhood with my white cane to avoid barriers. They paid for my car rides and Para-transit bus rides to and from the college and pick up my daughter. I used the same service to go to appointments. I had a pass for that from the state for medical appointments. Personal rides I had to cover myself. I hardly went anywhere that was not related to medical or school.

My Major:
My major was for a Microsoft Computer Science Systems Specialist. It is a certificate program comparable to an AS with C++. I took a lot of Computer classes and related classes. I got credit for some of the classes I had previously passed. The Empire college was not accredited college at the time, so I did not get credit for the medical classes I took with them.

I started classes in September 1994 I was 44 years old. 

Every class I had:
my tape recorder, double page NCR paper, a textbook or two, and a hand held magnifying glass and a backpack full of things I needed for each day such as food and water.

A year later I got an assisted listening device so I could hear the teacher better. They had a microphone and I had the receiver with head set.  All but one teacher was happy to assist me with this device.

I had tutors - [paid for by the Dept of Rehab] who met me in the Library to help me with math and later Algebra. I had to start over with grammar school math and worked my way up to the Algebra class that was required for the certificate. Volunteers in each class took notes for me on the NCR paper. I had some paid assistants for a few semesters.

I had training in the computer lab to learn how to use the adaptive equipment to assist me on the computer. This consisted of software that did several things. It enlarged the text, it gave audio output via speakers or headset, hardware such as a large track ball mouse, large letters on the keyboard, braille on every thing, padded wrist rests and awesome seating. In the computer lab I was trained on both PC and Mac computers.

All the classrooms had some special tables that could be adjusted for each student to accommodate for height while seated. Teachers were awesome in that they announced every thing they wrote on the board so I could review it on my tape player. I usually talked to the teachers after the first class and told them of my needs. They were all very good with helping me. A lot of the teachers were kind enough to have handouts for me that were already enlarged. Other documents could be enlarged for free at the disabilities center.

Fellow students:
I had friends of all ages who were disabled and belonged to several clubs for disabled students. I was president of one of the clubs on semester which allowed me to go to leadership retreats and have special training and input on council meetings.

When it came to testing, I was allowed time and a half to complete all he tests. I could be proctored in a separate room with all the adaptive equipment. Many times the teachers let us use our books to take the tests. Of course pop quizzes were happening without the aid of the books.

After 6 consecutive regular semesters and one summer session, I finished in May of 1997. I got my Microcomputer Systems Specialist Certificate with over 70 units completed with these 7 semesters including the 15 units from previous classes. There was only one class I had to repeat 3 times – DOS Utilities. I finally passed it as a cr/nc class.

My next decision was where was I going to attend blind school and my next college!

The State gifted me:

Monocular, Hot Shot  a water heating appliance, Measuring spoons, Hi-Mark marking puffy paint, Say-when indicator - when your coffee cup was full, folding white cane, long oven mitts, Solar shades sunglasses, talking watch, talking alarm clock, rubber mat to open jars, knife with guard, built up knife fork and spoon covers, and Handi-cassette recorder.

ADA Equipment
The first type of digital magnification device I used was a video camera in your hand. It looks like a mouse and basically is like a web camera hooked up to you computer via serial and now USB port connector.

The next model I used was a large CRT Monitor hooked up via cables to my computer monitor. It was about the size of a medium television. There were adjustments for black and white, color, negative and positive viewing and some colors like amber and cyan.
I used it to read my text books and could see the book on half the screen of my monitor while I could see what computer programs I was learning about at the same time.

These models I used before any of the flat screen monitors were available.
Digital software
JAWS Screen Reading Software by Freedom Scientific, Window-Eyes by GW Micro

If you are running Windows XP or VISTA you already have a screen reader program. It is called Windows Narrator. Same for the Apple MacIntosh computer and their program is called VoiceOver in Depth.

The programs I have used at College and Work 

JAWS Screen Reading Software by Freedom Scientific, Window-Eyes by GW Micro, and Connect Outloud. The last one is not longer being used. Some of the first generation screen readers were DOS based programs with no GUI interface. The user has keyboard commands for all of these screen readers, the first generation only had DOS and no graphics for Low Vision persons.
I got a computer from The Texas Center for the Visually Challenged [Now called Computers for the Blind - see link below] for 100.00 USD. It is an ongoing program for anyone who is blind or visually impaired. I will have a link in the links module. They are a wonderful outfit and has been going on for more than ten years.
Don’t forget to check out the 10 free Screen Reader Programs on the link list.

Facebook Makes Site More Accessible to Blind and Visually Impaired Users

The address is
You have to have an account with Facebook to get into the website.

System Access to Go

Another program that is really valuable that you can carry around with you on a flash drive and use any computer with it. That program is called System Access to Go by Serotek. A desktop application is just called System Access. free System Access licenses to the K-12 community, lifetime passes to SAMNet to blinded veterans, and SA to Go for blind and visually impaired persons living in developing countries. They have other software programs as well.

Blind and Low vision web sites
In 2011 I got a computer from the Computers for the Blind . I had a telephone interview and there was no application. The computers are guaranteed for a year. I had to get a new power supply for it after 18 months. It was easy for my kids to swap it. It probably is a good idea to have someone inspect your computer once you get it to make sure the power supply is the proper one for that computer. Keep in mind these are used computers and they are components put together. I am still using the computer and it is quite adequate for me as a legally blind person to do my writing and editing and perusing the internet. The NVDA screen reader it comes with works great for documents. It works well with the mobile app for Facebook and reads the words to you. Once you get used to it, it really helps to preserved your residual vision to listen to documents. The phone number for the Texas company is 214-340-6328

Able data Video Magnifiers
Able Data

10 Free Screen Readers For Blind Or Visually Impaired Users

I am currently using NVDA in my laptop and my PC.
Here is the link:

I love NVDA as it works with Facebook!

My friend Olivia has a link for ideas for Gifts for children with special needs:

Christmas Gifts for Children with Special Needs!

The classes I took to get my:
Microsoft Office Systems Specialist Certificate
Required classes to get certificate in 1990's
Class Units I was credited
CIS = Computer Information Systems class
DOS CIS 51.11 _______________3.0
Dos Utilities CIS 51.12A _________cr
Excel CIS 61.31 _______________3.0
Management Infi Sys CIS 66.0 ____3.0
Windows CIS 84.14 ____________1.5
Windows CIS 84.15A ___________1.5
Telecommunication CIS84.41 _____3.0
Web Pages CIS 84.42 A _________1.5
Computer Hardware ELE 299.7 ___1.5
” ” ELE 299.8 _________________1.5
Basic Programming CIS16A _____4.0
Communication 52 _______________1.0
Elem. Algebra math 150A ________3.0
some other CIS classes that I could not find my report card
from Jan to May 1997 when I find them I will add that to this list.

other prerequisites and special lab for disability students
WD process L cis 383 __________1.0
I took this lab class every semester with out credit after the first semester
General Math cskl 371 ___________3.0
Pre-Algebra cskl 372 ____________3.5
I also took a special ed PE class every semester except summer.
My first semester I had 3 other prerequisites for a new student and career development classes.

FYI current classes for Microcomputer Systems Specialist
Program of Study Code: 003104
Term Effective: SPRING 2004
30.5 Units

Program Description:
The Microcomputer Systems Specialist
Career Certificate program prepares students
for employment in many entry-level jobs
requiring a well-rounded computer education
in windows based microcomputer systems.
Microcomputer Systems Specialist Career Certificate
- complete 30.5 units
CIS 50.13 Virus Protection/Disk Backup
CIS 50.91 Exploring Microsoft Windows
CIS 51.13 Microsoft DOS/Windows Command Line
CIS 61.31 Using Microsoft Excel
CIS 65.11 Microsoft Word
CIS 66 Management Information Systems
CIS 78.11A Telecommunications 1
ELEC 88.81Computer Hardware
ELEC 88.82 Advanced Computer Hardware/A+
Complete any combination totaling at least 3.0
units from the following:
BGN 71 Business English
BMG 52 Written Communication in Organizations
ENGL 84A Technical Writing
ENGL 100 College Reading and Writing
Complete any combination totaling at least 3.0
units from the following:
CIS 10A Computer Science Fundamentals I
CIS 16A Introduction to Programming with Visual BASIC
Complete any combination totaling at least 3.0
units from the following:
BMG 54 Quantitative Skills/Math
MATH 150A First Half of Elementary Algebra
Any Math course from 150B to 155
Complete any combination totaling at least 3.0
units from the following:
Any other CIS course not appearing in the
certificate requirements.
Other Essential Program Information:
No course may be used more than once to
fulfill a requirement in the certificate.