This is a true story about my daughter Justine
Justine age 4
My daughter Justine says:
"It is a very long list of medications that can cause tardive dyskinesia [TD] and dystonia. People need to be warned! Doctors and psychiatrist don't warn most people of the risks. It's unfortunate that some of the medications I'm on to control the movements, can make TD worse. I'm on Xanax, and Prozac, and Omeprazole.
These are medications that are unlikely to cause tardive dyskinesia and dystonia.
I refuse to take the Parkinson's drugs,which my doctors keep trying to get me to take. They have horrid side effects beyond tardive dyskinesia and dystonia.
Botox has helped, but only mildly. I'm not willing to do deep brain stimulation surgery, it means they put electricity in your head with batteries, like a pacemaker except more like electro shock therapy, constantly. It's a permanent implant.
I hope to get the opportunity to meet and work with that orthodontist in California, that makes special mouth-guards. I've seen on YouTube that people as severe as me get relief as long as they wear the mouth guard. I don't understand how or why it works.
Most people who develop Tardive dyskinesia and dystonia suffer the rest of their life with uncontrollable movements. It is excruciating. A very small percentage of people, after years, the movements go away, mysteriously."
My daughter has been disabled by Tardive Dyskinesia and dystonia because her doctors prescribed medication for her that causes this debilitating disability.
Her form of drug-induced dystonia is described in this paragraph. Her symptoms started out small in one corner of her eye then progressed rapidly in one year.
Be sure to check this entire page for a comprehensive list of medications that can cause this medical problem. You will be shocked at the long list of drugs that are STILL being supplied every day to everyone!
Some have been taken off the list such as Reglan which was given to me in 2009 when I was in the hospital for 5 months.
Justine in 2013
"Tardive dystonia starts insidiously and progresses over months or years, until it becomes static. Dystonia typically presents in a twisting pattern with deviations on multiple anatomical planes. The movements typical of tardive dystonia are generally slower and more sustained than other dyskinesias."
"Symptoms of dystonia can range from very mild to severe. Dystonia can affect different body parts, and often the symptoms of dystonia progress through stages. Some early symptoms include:
- a "dragging leg"
- cramping of the foot
- involuntary pulling of the neck
- uncontrollable blinking
- speech difficulties"
Justine in 2013
Tardive Dystonia Causes
Tardive dystonia often develops due to the use of certain neuroleptic agents and other antipsychotic medications. These drugs are generally used to treat individuals with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Tardive dystonia can also develop as a result of the use of certain antidepressants and gastrointestinal agents.
Not everyone who takes one of these medications will develop tardive dystonia, and the scientific community has not definitively determined why some patients develop the condition while others do not. However, patients who undergo long-term treatment with medications that cause tardive dystonia generally experience the condition at higher rates than patients who undergo treatment with the medications for shorter periods of time.
The following medications have been associated with tardive dyskinesia:
- Acetophenazine (Tindal)
- Amoxapine (Asendin)
- Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
- Fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin)
- Haloperidol (Haldol)
- Loxapine (Loxitane, Daxolin)
- Mesoridazine (Serentil)
- Metoclopramide (Reglan)
- Molindone (Lindone, Moban)
- Perphanzine (Trilafrom, Triavil)
- Piperacetazine (Quide)
- Prochlorperazine (Compazine, Combid)
- Promazine (Sparine)
- Promethazine (Phenergan)
- Thiethylperazine (Torecan)
- Thioridazine (Mellaril)
- Thiothixene (Navane)
- Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
- Triflupromazine (Vesprin)
- Trimeprazine (Temaril-P)
- [Just a partial list]
My daughters video of a Tardive Dyskinesia dystonia storm event that she experiences and what it is like for her without medication. Video taken December 2015.
She does use expletives and rough language.
Links to information abot Dystonia and Tardive Dyskinesia
Drugs belonging to this class of neuroleptics include (trade name listed in parenthesis):
1 Acetohenazine (Tindal)
2 amoxapine (Asendin)
3 chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
4 fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin)
5 haloperidol (Haldol)
6 loxapine (Loxitane, Daxolin)
7 mesoridazine (Serentil)
8 metaclopramide (Reglan)
9 molinndone (Lindone, Moban)
10 perphanzine (Trilafrom, Triavil)
11 piperacetazine (Quide)
12 prochlorperzine (Compazine, Combid)
13 promazine (Sparine)
14 promethazine (Phenergan)
15 thiethylperazine (Torecan)
16 thioridazine (Mellaril)
17 thiothixene (Navane)
18 trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
19 triflupromazine (Vesprin)
20 trimeprazine (Temaril).
In February 2009, the connection between tardive dyskinesia and certain medications made the news, when the FDA announced that metoclopramide would be required to carry a “black box” label warning of the risk of tardive dyskinesia with long term use. Metoclopramide is an antiemetic prescribed for gastroparesis, severe acid reflux, and other problems; it is sold under the brand names: Reglan, Octamide, and Maxolon. Patients under sixty who use this drug for three months or more run the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia; people age sixty and older are especially vulnerable and may develop tardive dyskinesia after only a month on metoclopramide.
The following overview of drugs which can cause tardive dyskinesia is by no means exhaustive. Other medications not included here can also cause tardive dyskinesia.
Neuroleptics (anti-psychotics) are medicines given for psychiatry disorders; they have proven exceptionally effective for schizophrenia. Unfortunately these wonder drugs come with a price; they can cause tardive dyskinesia. The following classes of medicines are neuroleptics which are known to cause a tardive dyskinesia diagnosis:
• Droperidol (brand name: Isapsine)
• Haloperidol (brand name: Haldol)
• Loxapine (brand names: Daxolin, Loxitane)
• Primozide (brand name: Orap)
• Molindone (brand name: Moban)
• Chlorpromazine (brand name: Thorazine)
• Fluphenazine (brand names: Permitil, Prolixin)
• Mesoridazine (brand name: Serenitil)
• Perphenazine (brand name: Trilafon)
• Thioridazine (brand name: Mellaril)
• Trifluoperazine (brand name: Stelazine)
• Thioxanthene ((brand name: Navane)
The following drugs are called atypical neuroleptics. They are newer than the traditional neuroleptics and they are less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia; however, the atypical neuroleptics are not entirely risk- free. In some cases, people taking atypical neuroleptics have developed tardive dyskinesia.
• Amisulpride (brand name: Solian)
• Olanzapine (brand name: Zyprexa)
• Quetiapine (brand name: Seroquial)
• Resperidone (brand name: Risperdal)
Anti-cholinergics (anti-spasmodics) are class of medications prescribed for respiratory problems such as COPD, bladder control problems, Parkinson’s disease, and other reasons. The following anti-cholinergics have commonly been given to help control some symptoms of Parkinson’s, but these drugs can cause tardive dyskinesia:
• Biperiden (brand name: Akineton)
• Orphenadrine (brand names: Norflex, Norgesic, Orphengesic)
People on the following antidepressants also run the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia, although the risk is lower than with the neuroleptics:
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
• Phenelzine (brand name: Nardil)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
• Fluoxetine (brand name: Prozac)
• Sertraline (brand name: Zoloft)
(brand name: Desyrel)
• Amitriptyline (brand name: Elavil, Vanatrip)
• Amitriptyline combined with perphenazine (brand name: Triavil)
• Amoxapine (brand name: Asendin)
• Doxepin (brand name: Sinequan)
• Imipramine (brand name: Tofranil)
The antiemetics are given to quell severe nausea and acid reflux. Metoclopramide is used primarily for gastroparesis—a condition in which the stomach does not contract properly, but this powerful drug is also used for severe cases of acid reflux and to prevent aspiration pneumonia. In addition, metoclopramide may given for headaches which are due to a disorder of the cranial blood vessels. The following drugs are antiemetics that can cause tardive dyskinesia:
• Metoclopramide (brand names: Reglan, Maxolon, Octamide)
• Prochlorperazine (brand name: Compazine)
According to the Federal Food and Drug Administration, over 2 million people now take metoclopramide (Reglan, Maxolon, Octamide); the wide-spread use of this medication means that more people are now at risk for drug-induced tardive dyskinesia.
The anxiolytics are given for anxiety disorders. The following anxiolytic has been known to cause tardive dyskinesia:
• Alprazolam (brand name: Xanax)
Some drugs give to prevent or reduce epileptic seizures can also cause tardive dyskinesia:
• Carbamazepine (brand names: Atretol, Epitol, Tegretol)
• Ethosuximide (brand name: Zarontin)
• Phenobarbital (brand names: Barbita, Luminal sodium, Solfoton)
• Phenytoin (brand name: Dilantin)
Parkinson’s patients are especially prone to develop tardive dyskinesia and should use caution when taking any medications known to cause tardive dyskinesia; for example, metoclopramide (Reglan, Maxolon, Octamide) should only be prescribed for people with Parkinson’s if the benefits of taking the medication outweigh the risks of developing tardive dyskinesia. Some drugs given for Parkinson’s symptoms can cause tardive dyskinesia:
• Bromocriptine (brand name: Parlodel)
• Levodopa (brand names: Dopar, L-Dopa, Larodopa)
• Levodopa (brand names: (Atamet, Sinemet)
Other Drugs which can cause Tardive Dyskinesia
The mood stabilizer lithium sometimes given for bipolar disorder can cause tardive dyskinesia:
• Lithium (brand names: Cibalith-S, Eskalith, Lithane, Lithobid, Lithotabs, Lithonate)
Dopamine (brand name: Intropin) can cause tardive dyskinesia, but this drug is generally given to people in serious condition in the hospital to strengthen the heart’s pumping action, so the benefits are considered to outweigh the risk; in addition, this medication is less likely to be given long term than some other tardive dyskinesia-inducing medications.
Even the commonly given antihistamines and antihistamines with decongestants can sometimes cause tardive dyskinesia, but this is rare;
antihistamines given in combination with sympathomimetics can also cause problems.
The anti-malarial drug Chlorquine (brand name: Aralen) can cause tardive dyskinesia.
The estrogens found in oral contraceptives and hormone replacements can also cause tardive dyskinesia, but this is rare.
Ritalin and Ritalin SR
two controversial drugs given to children for ADHD also can cause tardive dyskinesia. The generic name for these two medications is methylphenidate.
In addition the amphetamine Adderall can cause tardive dyskinesia; so can caffeine in large enough doses.
You are welcomed to pass along this post and photos and the video links. Please help educate the public of the dangers of these medications.
Merry Christmas from Justine and me.